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Introduction: “Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)” is a common complication of pregnancy and is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. One way to assess the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes is by measuring the level of HbA1c, which is a biomarker of blood glucose control over the previous 2-3 months. However, it is unclear whether HbA1c levels in patients without GDM are associated with pregnancy outcomes. This paper aims to assess the HbA1c levels in patients without GDM and its correlation with pregnancy outcomes in a prospective study.
Methods: This prospective study included 500 pregnant women without GDM at baseline. HbA1c levels were measured at 12-16 weeks of gestation, and pregnancy outcomes were assessed at delivery. Pregnancy outcomes included preterm birth, macrosomia, small for gestational age, and gestational hypertension.
Results: The mean HbA1c level in patients without GDM was 5.11± 0.96. Of the 500 women included in the study, 18 (3.6%) developed GDM during pregnancy. Regarding pregnancy outcomes, 42 (8.4%) of the 500 women had preterm birth, 32 (6.4%) had macrosomia, 29 (5.8%) had small for gestational age, and 36 (7.2%) had gestational hypertension. There was a significant positive correlation between HbA1c levels and gestational hypertension (r=0.201, p<0.001), but no significant correlation between HbA1c levels and preterm birth, macrosomia, or small for gestational age. HbA1c levels were significantly associated with gestational hypertension (OR [95% CI] = 1.83 [1.27-2.65], p=0.002).
Conclusion: These findings suggest that HbA1c levels may not be a reliable biomarker for predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients without GDM. However, HbA1c levels may be useful for predicting the risk of developing gestational hypertension. This is consistent with previous research that has shown an association between higher HbA1c levels and the risk of developing hypertension in non-pregnant populations.
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