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Saeed Ullah Shah, Tanya Waseem, Thalha Afridi, Muhammad Ibrahim Shah


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide; responsible for 30% of all deaths globally. Food and nutrition are evidently an integral part of human health and play a crucial role in the cardiometabolic health of an individual. Poor diet quality is strongly associated with elevated risk of CVD morbidity and mortality. There is also strong evidence showing the effectiveness of “healthy” diet and other lifestyle patterns in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiometabolic disease spectrum.

There has been much emphasis on the preventive aspect of CVD and overall cardiometabolic health over the last three decades. Western societies and health systems have done quite a lot in improving and promoting healthy lifestyle choices. Unfortunately, developing countries, despite the worrisome rise in these preventable conditions, have contributed little to address this major issue with significant health and economic implications. The emphasis in these countries is mostly on the therapeutic, pharmacological, and more expensive tertiary management of the conditions that arise from poor cardiometabolic health, lifestyle, and dietary patterns. There is a lack of relevant and easy to understand authentic patient information or any effort to disseminate it to the public and patient population. Furthermore, there is not much effort at the governmental level to implement any meaningful measures concerning prevention of these conditions for the public at large.

In this review about the nutritional needs and recommendations for cardiovascular health for Pakistani population, we have tried to encompass the relevant information into two papers. In the first, we cover the basic concepts, including mechanisms and other information relating to food and nutrition and their association with CVD and other cardiometabolic conditions (diabetes, dyslipidaemia, etc.). In the upcoming second issue, we will discuss more specific recommendations for the Pakistani population and dietary advice for CV health.

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