Myofibroblasts as important diagnostic and prognostic indicators of oral squamous cell carcinoma

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Dr. Kartikay Saxena, Dr. Rohit Wadhwa, Dr. Anjali Pawan Kumar, Dr. Satyam Dutt


Background: The most prevalent oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), has a complex etiopathogenesis. Myofibroblasts (MFs) may have a significant contribution to the aetiology of the disease, according to data from earlier research. As a result, the current investigation was conducted to evaluate the expression of MF in well-differentiated OSCC (WDOSCC), moderately differentiated OSCC (MDOSCC), poorly differentiated OSCC (PDOSCC), and healthy controls using immunohistochemistry and an alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibody. Methodology: There were 100 cases of WDOSCC, MDOSCC, PDOSCC, and healthy controls total. Each tissue sample was cut into 4-m thick sections, which were then both conventionally stained with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemically stained with α-SMA. The expression of MFs was compared among OSCC grades. Statistics were applied to all of the outcomes. Results: The current study was performed in three different grades of OSCC and included 100 cases each of WDOSCC, MDOSCC, PDOSCC and normal mucosa as controls. After evaluating the specimens immunohistochemically using α‑SMA marker, results revealed a mean final staining index score of 9.67 in WDOSCC cases, 9.23 in MDOSCC cases and 8.12 in PDOSCC cases. Conclusion: It was concluded that MFs are one of the essential pathogenetic elements in OSCCs based on the facts of the current investigation, and that evaluating them might assist anticipate their invasive behaviour. Therefore, we support the use of MFs as a stromal marker for OSCC patients to visualise invasion and progression.

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