A Case Control study to assess the Etiologic Risk factors, Incidence and Prevalence of Nephrolithiasis in South India

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Jobin Kunjumon Vilapurathu, G. R. Vijaya Sankar, B. S. Venkateswarlu, Margret Chandira, S. Shanmuganathan


Objective: To evaluate the etiologic risk factors and prevalence associated with Nephrolithiasis in South Indian Population

Materials & Methods: Case controlled study to analyze the risk factors of Nephrolithiasis was carried out at a Tertiary care Hospital in Kerala. The details of 1290 patients between the age group 20 to 90 years who were diagnosed with Nephrolithiasis during the study period was compared with gender and age matched control who came to the hospital on the same day. The study participants included both In-patients and out patients. The patient details were collected and analyzed for various risk factors which can lead to the formation and recurrence of Nephrolithiasis.


Results: The study population mean age group of 53.14±15.33, most of the subjects falling between the age group between 51-60 years. About 75% of the patients who were included in the study had previous history of Nephrolithiasis with the last confirmed symptomatic episode within 1 year of the study (Mean being 10± 4 months). The main dietary risk factors which were identified was Calcium and purine rich foods (CI=95%, P<0.001), Alcohol, Obesity and Lack of exercise was also found to be having significant correlation in the incidence and recurrence of the condition.


Conclusion: Analyzing the data obtained it can be concluded that elderly and obese patients are more prone for recurrence of Nephrolithiasis. The dietary habits of the patients had a significant impact in the incidence and recurrence of nephrolithiasis. The regular inclusion of foods rich in Calcium oxalate, uric acid and purine can increase the severity of the condition. Decreased fluid intake along with life style risk factors such as lack in exercise, smoking, obesity and Alcohol intake can also increase the chance for Nephrolithiasis. Diabetes, Hypertension and Hyperlipidemia were the most significant comorbidities evident in Nephrolithiasis patients.

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