Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus is a Risk Factor of Different Types of Cancers: Systematic Review

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Nawaf Farhan Alrawili, Wafaa Mohamed Falah, Mohammed Ahmed M Alnujaydi, Yahya Khaled I Alrumaih, Abdulrahman Ahmed M Alnujayd, Sultan Mohammed F Alanazi


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrine condition affecting people worldwide. Numerous clinical research has looked into the relationship between diabetes and cancer and how it may be caused. This review investigates the recently published literature regarding the risk of the development of cancer in patients with DM.

Methodology: PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library were searched. Study articles were screened by title and abstract using Rayyan QCRI, then implemented a full-text assessment.

Results: Eight studies were included, with 49276 diabetic patients who developed different types of cancers. Most of our included studies reported that DM increases the risk of cancer development; however, it is reported that DM was related to a lower risk of prostate cancer.

Conclusion: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic disease resulting in the loss of the beta cells of the pancreas due to an autoimmune reaction, and its prevalence seems to be rising. Given the enormous number of people worldwide who have the condition, even slight increases in the RR of cancer incidence and/or mortality among this population will significantly raise the overall burden of cancer. Interestingly, few studies reported that overall cancer risks are reduced, likely due to the diabetes patients' healthier lifestyles regarding smoking and alcohol use, as well as a potential link between prostate cancer and lower testosterone levels in men with diabetes with a marginally elevated risk of cancer incidence in women, especially breast cancer.

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