Clinicohematological evaluation of anaemia in females of reproductive age group (15-49 years)

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Dr. Anil Kumar Sharma, Dr. Bharti Thaker, Dr. Ameet Kaur, Dr. Deepa Hans


Introduction: Anaemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders. It has a great public health importance in developing countries like India where it is the most widespread nutritional problem. The present study assessed the clinicohematological evaluation of anaemia in females of reproductive age group (15-49 years). Objective: Clinicohematological evaluation of anaemia in females of reproductive age group (15-49 years) including various morphological patterns of anaemia. Materials and method: The study was conducted in the Postgraduate Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jammu prospectively for a period of one year w.e.f 1st November 2021 to 31st October 2022.The study included women in reproductive age group (15- 49 years) referred to this department from all clinical departments of Government Medical College Jammu and associated hospitals. The study material which included peripheral blood films, bone marrow aspirates and bone marrow biopsies from these patients was subjected to Leishman, MGG and H&E staining.The results of clinical findings, general physical examination, relevant investigationswere recorded and detailed microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears and bone marrow aspiration/biopsy was performed. Results: Common presenting complaints were generalised weakness (60%), fever (26.15%), easy fatigability (20%), menorrhagia/bleeding manifestations (6.15%) and abdominal pain (7.69%). Majority (96.92%) had moderate to severe anaemia. Peripheral blood film examination showed Dimorphic picture in 33.84% patients, Macrocytic Hypochromic picture in 41.54%, Microcytic Hypochromic picture in 7.69% and Normocytic Hypochromic picture in 16.93% patients.Based on history, physical and clinical evaluation, PBF and  Bone marrow findings in 65 patients in our study group, final diagnosis Megaloblastic anaemia was given in 31(47.69%) patients, Dual deficiency anaemia in 12(18.46%),Iron deficiency anaemia in 05(7.69%), Acute leukaemia in 07 (10.76%), Aplastic anaemia in 02  (3.08%), Chronic myeloid leukaemia in 02 (3.08%), Multiple Myeloma in 02 (3.08%), Essential Thrombocythemia in 02 (3.08%), Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukaemia in 01 (1.54%) and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in 01 (1.54%) case. Conclusion: Nutritional anaemias were found to be the most common cause of anaemia in our study accounting for 73.84% of cases with adolescent females most commonly affected. Females particularly in reproductive age group are more prone to anaemia which can be because of growth spurt, menstrual irregularities, faulty dietary habits, insufficient dietary intake and parasitic infections.Food fortification and diversification including Iron/B12/Folate supplementation and improvement in personal hygiene should be promoted among females particularly in women of reproductive age group to overcome the problem of anaemia.

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