A prospective descriptive study on maternal and perinatal outcome and obstetrical behaviour in teenage preganancy

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Sannyasi Charan Barman, Pratima Garain, Panchatapa Mahapatra, Kajal Kumar Patra, Kishore P Madhwani


Background : The incidence of teenage pregnancy is increasing in the world. It is considered to be a high-risk condition that leads to psychological problems and adverse perinatal and obstetric outcome. This study was conducted to study incidence, obstetric behavior and maternal and perinatal morbidity in teenage pregnancy. Methods : This is a observational study at department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Bankura Sammilani Medical  College, Bankura, West Bengal, India  from  April 2020 to Sept’ 2021 (1.5 yrs). This study was conducted among 106 teenage pregnant mother admitted in the department of (G&O) for delivery. Teenage mothers who were fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in this study. Data included in this study were; age, residence, socio economic and education status, antenatal complication, labour events, perinatal morbidity and mortality. By studying all the above mentioned factors we analyzed the incidence, obstetric behavior and perinatal morbidity in teenage pregnancy. Results : Study shows that mean age was 18.14 ± 0.74 yrs. It was found that 87.7% patients were Hindu and 12.3% were Muslim, 63.2% patients were from rural area and 36.8% patients were from urban area. We observed that 70.8% patients were from poor socioeconomic status and 22.6% patients were from lower middle class, 26.4% patients were illiterate and 24.9% had education up to primary school. We observed that 33.0% patients were in unbooked status.  In this study, 11 (10.4%) patients had 6 - 8.4 gm% Hb,  74 (69.8%) patients had 8.5 - 11 gm% Hb.   This study showed, 7 (6.6%) patients had 2+ albumin, 4 (3.8%) patients had 3+ albumin (P ≤ 0.00001), and 11 (10.4%) patients had pre-eclampsia, 5 (4.7%) patients had eclampsia. (P ≤ 0.00001). In this study, 38 (35.8%) patients had spontaneous onset of labour and rest of the mother required labour induction or caesarean section. In this study, 6 (5.7%) had elective CS, 25 (23.6%) had emergency CS, 8 (7.5%) had forceps delivery and 66 (62.3%) had vaginal delivery (P ≤ 0.00001). In our study among 106 cases, 4 (3.8%) patient had complete perineal tear, 1 (0.9%) had cervical tear, 4 (3.8%) had postpartum haemorrhage and 2(1.9%) had retained placenta as complication of 3rd stage of labour (P ≤ 0.00001). In this study, 3(2.9%) patients had <1.5Kg weight fetuses, 70 (66.0%) patients had fetuses   whose weight was between 1.5Kg -2.5Kg. We observed that 102 (96.2%) patients had live birth and 4 (3.8%) patients had  still birth (P ≤ 0.00001). Conclusion : This study clearly states that the teenage mothers come from poor socio economic family with less education. They have complications like anaemia, pregnancy induced hypertension, eclampsia, cephalopelvic disproportion, need labour induction, increased caesarean section rate.  They are also liable to have post partum haemorrhage and genital injuries. Their babies are also liable to have complications like low birth weight baby, still born and neonatal death. General health education about the risks of teenage pregnancy, strictly enforce the law for minimum age at marriage and a multidisciplinary approach involving educationists, health workers, social workers and obstetrician and gynecologist is required to improve the adolescent’s reproductive health.

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