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Congenital anomalies (CA) are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in paediatric patients. The study aims to evaluate the patterns, associated risk factors, and management of congenital abnormalities to prevent such conditions in the paediatric population.
An observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital, Gandhi hospital, Secunderabad, India. 80 cases were identified, included and analysed for the study from inpatients units of Paediatrics department. Data were collected from medical records and interviews with parents. The collected data was analysed using statistical methods.
Results and Discussion:
Out of sixty cases, the incidence of CA was higher in male babies. In our study, twenty-one children were between the age group of 3 months to 2 years. The occurrence of CA was more frequent among individuals with birth weight of 2 - 2.5 kg. It was observed that 26.7% of the children with CA were born out of consanguineous marriages and most of the congenital malformation cases had no significant risk factors in the study. The central nervous system was the commonest system associated with CA, followed by the genitourinary system. The commonly prescribed medications were analgesics, multivitamins, beta-lactam antibiotics, and cephalosporins. Oral and intravenous routes of administration were most commonly preferred in children with CA.
This study emphasizes the need for early detection, prevention, and appropriate management of congenital anomalies in paediatric patients. The study highlights the importance of monitoring the birth weight, sex, and family history in predicting the risk of CA. The findings of this study can help healthcare providers improve their understanding of congenital anomalies and provide better care to affected children.
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