A Comprehensive Examination of Injection Practices Across Varied Healthcare Facilities: A Focus on Patient Safety and Provider Adherence

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Sanjay kumar Dabhi, Dr. Niraj. B. Pandit

Abstract

Background: Both patients and healthcare providers are at significant risk of both infectious and non infectious adverse effects due to the hazardous nature of injection techniques. In healthcare facilities, administering injections is the most frequent medical process. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that an astounding 16 billion injections are administered annually around the world. Ninety to ninety-seven percent of these injections are used for the management of minor illnesses, while three percent are used for vaccinations. According to the Integrated Infectious Diseases and Non communicable Diseases (IPEN) study findings, 3-6 billion injections are administered annually in India. Remarkably, studies imply that every year, at least 50% of injections performed globally are harmful, particularly in impoverished countries.The prevalent issue of potentially hazardous injection procedures is made worse by the fact that a large percentage of these curative injections are deemed unneeded, ineffective, or unsuitable. Given this, the focus of the current study is to investigate how well safe injection procedures are followed in different Surat city healthcare institutions. The ultimate goal of this research is to improve patient safety and healthcare provider practices by offering insightful information on the current status of injection administration through a comprehensive assessment. Objectives: to Examine the overall effectiveness of the existing infrastructure and systems within healthcare facilities in facilitating safe injection practices.Methods and materials:  I have conducted a descriptive  survey between the periods of   May 2021 to December 2021 using the Revised Injection Safety Assessment Tool-C (WHO-2015) to evaluate injection safety practices of different health facilities of Surat city.  Using non probability purposive sampling, 1 government, 14 urban health centres, 3 trust and 8   private health facilities were selected and evaluated. The research design used in this study was descriptive survey research design. Total 26 health care facilities were observed and health care worker were interviewed to evaluate whether the health facilities meet the demand of requirement and supply to provide safe injection practices. The tool consists of observational checklist.  Data analysis was planned on the basis of objectives of the study using descriptive and inferential statistics. The present study has been undertaken in the outdoor and indoor departments of government, trusts, private hospitals and urban health centre of different zones of Surat city. Results: There was no shortage of injection equipment, materials, or supplies, and no evidence of attempts to sterilize disposable devices was observed. Care providers consistently disposed of used needles and syringes in designated sharps containers. In all government and private healthcare facilities, injections were administered using sealed packets. Notably, 100% of healthcare providers in both private and government facilities were fully immunized against hepatitis B.However, the practice of wearing a new pair of gloves for injections was observed in only 65% of government and 55% of private health facilities. Although many health facilities had an alcohol-based hand rub in the injection area during visits, there was a lack of sufficient stock. Interestingly, all healthcare providers, both in government and private facilities, did not receive any special training related to safe injection practices within the preceding two years.Furthermore, the absence of a written policy or Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for injection safety was noted in both government and private facilities. It is noteworthy that no incidents of recapping were observed, and there were no reported cases of needle stick injuries within the past 12 months in either government or private facilities. Conclusion: Several aspects of injection safety were found to be satisfactory in both government and private healthcare facilities in Surat city. Nevertheless, opportunities for improvement exist, warranting specific measures. It is imperative to ensure a consistent supply of alcohol-based hand rub, adequate provision of supplies, and the availability of appropriate sharps containers in both government and private facilities. The implementation of regular in-service educational training sessions for healthcare workers across all facilities is crucial. These training programs should focus on enhancing safety measures, aiming to periodically refine the skills of healthcare providers in safe injection practices, thereby mitigating the burden associated with unsafe practices.


 


Keywords: Infections, Health care facilities. Health care providers, Injection practices, Blood-borne diseases, Injection safety, Injection assessments, Quality care.

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